Keine Zeit, das Spiel jemandem zu erklären? Dieser Flyer erklärt kurz und bündig die Regeln des Go-Spiels. Der Flyer wird üblicherweise farbig und. 7. März Spielmaterial und Ziel Go wird auf einem Brett von 19xLinien mit schwarzen und weißen Spielsteinen gespielt. Es wird immer abwechselnd. Regeln. Kurzfassung der Regeln. Grundsätzliches. Um Go zu spielen wird ein Brett mit 19x19 (oder 13x13 oder 9x9) Linien benötigt. Dazu gehören
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This is not barred by the ko rule because the resulting position, shown in the fourth diagram, differs from the one after White 1 by the absence of the marked black stones.
This kind of capture is called a snapback. The next example is typical of real games. It shows how the ko rule can sometimes be circumvented by first playing elsewhere on the board.
The first diagram below shows the position after Black 1. White can capture the marked black stone by playing at a.
The second diagram shows the resulting position. Black cannot immediately recapture at b because of the ko rule. So Black instead plays 3 in the third diagram.
For reasons that will become clear, Black 3 is called a "ko threat". At this point, White could choose to connect at b , as shown in the first diagram below.
However, this would be strategically unsound, because Black 5 would guarantee that Black could eventually capture the white group altogether, no matter how White played.
Instead, White responds correctly to Black 3 with 4 in the first diagram below. Now, contrary to the situation after White 2, Black can legally play at b , because the resulting position, shown in the second diagram, has not occurred previously.
It differs from the position after Black 1 because of the presence of Black 3 and White 4 on the board. Now White is prohibited from recapturing at a by the ko rule.
White has no moves elsewhere on the board requiring an immediate reply from Black ko threats , so White plays the less urgent move 6, capturing the black stone at 3, which could not have evaded capture even if White had waited.
In the next diagram, Black connects at a before White has a chance to recapture. Both players pass and the game ends in this position. The game ends when both players have passed consecutively.
The final position the position later used to score the game is the position on the board at the time the players pass consecutively.
Since the position on the board at the time of the first two consecutive passes is the one used to score the game, Rule 9 can be said to require the players to "play the game out".
Under Rule 9, players must for example capture enemy stones even when it may be obvious to both players that they cannot evade capture.
Otherwise the stones are not considered to have been captured. Because Rule 9 differs significantly from the various systems for ending the game used in practice, a word must be said about them.
The precise means of achieving this varies widely by ruleset, and in some cases has strategic implications. These systems often use passing in a way that is incompatible with Rule 9.
For players, knowing the conventions surrounding the manner of ending the game in a particular ruleset can therefore have practical importance.
Under Chinese rules, and more generally under any using the area scoring system, a player who played the game out as if Rule 9 were in effect would not be committing any strategic errors by doing so.
They would, however, likely be viewed as unsportsmanlike for prolonging the game unnecessarily. On the other hand, under a territory scoring system like that of the Japanese rules, playing the game out in this way would in most cases be a strategic mistake.
Unless the entire board is empty, the second condition — that there be at least one stone of the kind required — is always satisfied and can be ignored.
In that case the point is said to be neutral territory. Japanese and Korean rules count some points as neutral where the basic rules, like Chinese rules, would not.
In order to understand the definition of territory, it is instructive to apply it first to a position of a kind that might arise before the end of a game.
Let us assume that a game has ended in the position below  even though it would not normally occur as a final position between skilled players.
The point a is adjacent to a black stone. However, a is connected to b by the path shown in the diagram, among others , which is adjacent to a white stone.
In conclusion, a is neutral territory. The point c is connected to d , which is adjacent to a white stone. But c is also connected to e , which is adjacent to a black stone.
Therefore, c is neutral territory. On the other hand, h is adjacent only to black stones and is not connected to any other points. Therefore, h is black territory.
For the same reason, i and j are black territory, and k is white territory. It is because there is so much territory left to be claimed that skilled players would not end the game in the previous position.
The game might continue with White playing 1 in the next diagram. The game might end with the moves shown below. In the final position, the points marked a are black territory and the points marked b are white territory.
The point marked c is the only neutral territory left. In Japanese and Korean rules, the point in the lower right corner and the point marked a on the right side of the board would fall under the seki exception, in which they would be considered neutral territory.
Consider once again the final position shown in the last diagram of the section "Territory". The following diagram illustrates the area of each player in that position.
For example, if a game ended as in the last diagram in the section "Territory", the score would be: Black 44, White The scoring system described here is known as area scoring , and is the one used in the Chinese rules.
Different scoring systems exist. These determine the same winner in most instances. See the Scoring systems section below. If one player has a higher score than the other, then that player wins.
Otherwise, the game is drawn. The most prominent difference between rulesets is the scoring method. There are two main scoring systems: A third system stone scoring is rarely used today but was used in the past and has historical and theoretical interest.
Care should be taken to distinguish between scoring systems and counting methods. Only two scoring systems are in wide use, but there are two ways of counting using "area" scoring.
Furthermore, Japanese and Korean rules have special provisions in cases of seki , though this is not a necessary part of a territory scoring system.
See " Seki " below. There are several common ways in which to count the score all these ways will always result in the same winner:.
Play typically continues until both players have nearly filled their territories, leaving only the two eyes necessary to prevent capture.
If the game ends with both players having played the same number of times, then the score will be identical in territory and area scoring. AGA rules call for a player to give the opponent a stone when passing, and for White to play last passing a third time if necessary.
The results for stone and area scoring are identical if both sides have the same number of groups. Otherwise the results will differ by two points for each extra group.
Some older rules used area scoring with a "group tax" of two points per group; this will give results identical to those with stone scoring.
Customarily, when players agree that there are no useful moves left most often by passing in succession , they attempt to agree which groups are alive and which are dead.
If disagreement arises, then under Chinese rules the players simply play on. However, under Japanese rules, the game is already considered to have ended.
The players attempt to ascertain which groups of stones would remain if both players played perfectly from that point on. These groups are said to be alive.
In addition, this play is done under rules in which kos are treated differently from ordinary play. If the players reach an incorrect conclusion, then they both lose.
Unlike most other rulesets, the Japanese rules contain lengthy definitions of when groups are considered alive and when they are dead. In fact, these definitions do not cover every situation that may arise.
Some difficult cases not entirely determined by the rules and existing precedent must be adjudicated by a go tribunal. The need for the Japanese rules to address the definition of life and death follows from the fact that in the Japanese rules, scores are calculated by territory rather than by area.
Therefore, the game is divided into a phase of ordinary play, and a phase of determination of life and death which according to the Japanese rules is not technically part of the game.
To allow players of different skills to compete fairly, handicaps and komi are used. These are considered a part of the game and, unlike in many other games, they do not distort the nature of the game.
Players at all levels employ handicaps to make the game more balanced. In a handicap game, komi is usually set to 0. A handicap game with a handicap of 1 starts like an even game, but White receives only 0.
Before the 20th century, there was no komi system. When the great Shusaku was once asked how an important game came out, he said simply, "I had Black", implying that victory was inevitable.
As more people became aware of the significance of Black having the first move, komi was introduced. When it was introduced in Japanese Professional games, it was 4.
However, Black still had a better chance to win, so komi was increased to 5. In , the Japanese Go Association again increased the komi value to 6.
Traditionally, the hoshi "star points" — strategically important intersections marked with small dots—are used to place these handicap stones.
When Black is only one rank weaker also known as one stone weaker, due to the close relationship between ranks and the handicap system , Black is given the advantage of playing Black, perhaps without komi, but without any mandatory White passes.
For rank differences from two through nine stones, the appropriate number of handicap stones are used. Beyond nine stones, the difference in strength between the players is usually considered great enough that the game is more a lesson where White teaches Black than a competition.
Thus, nine stones is the nominal upper limit on handicap stones regardless of the difference in rank although higher numbers of stones, up to 41 stones in some cases, may be given if the teacher wants a greater challenge.
Go was already an ancient game before its rules were codified, and therefore, although the basic rules and strategy are universal, there are regional variations in some aspects of the rules.
These definitions are given only loosely, since a number of complications arise when attempts are made to formalize the notion of life and death.
A group of stones of one color is said to be alive by seki or in seki if it is not independently alive, yet cannot be captured by the opponent.
For example, in the diagram above, the black and white groups each have only one eye. Hence they are not independently alive.
However, if either Black or White were to play at the circled point, the other side would then capture their group by playing in its eye. In this case both the black and white groups are alive by seki.
In the diagram above, the circled point is not surrounded by stones of a single color, and accordingly is not counted as territory for either side irrespective of ruleset.
In more complex cases, as here, . According to Japanese and Korean rules, such a point is nonetheless treated as neutral territory for scoring purposes.
Generally, the Japanese and Korean rules only count a vacant point as territory for one color if it is surrounded by a group or groups of that color that are independently alive.
The major division in rules to prevent repetition is between the simple ko rule and the super ko rule: In both cases, the rule does not however prohibit passing.
The super ko rule is differentiated into situational super ko SSK, in which the "position" that cannot be recreated includes knowledge of whose turn it is and positional super ko PSK, which ignores whose turn it is.
Natural situational super ko NSSK is a variant in which what matters is not whose turn it is, but who created the position i. Situations other than ko which could lead to an endlessly repeating position are rare enough that many frequent players never encounter them; their treatment depends on what ruleset is being used.
The simple ko rule generally requires the inclusion of additional rules to handle other undesirable repetitions e. Without a superko rule, this position would lead to an endless cycle, and hence "no result", a draw, or some other outcome determined by the rules.
We now discuss the position using the superko rule. For simplicity, we assume that the last move placed a stone in a position unoccupied since the beginning of the game, and away from the ko.
Under positional and situational super ko, Black captures the white group. White can get a seki by passing, but only at the cost of allowing Black unlimited moves away from the ko.
If White insists on saving their group, the final position might look like the second diagram. On the other hand, with the first move which should be a pass , White wins by two points in the third position using NSSK assuming area scoring.
Some rulesets notably, New Zealand derived rules and Ing rules allow suicide of more than one stone. The major rulesets differ in how handicap stones are placed on the board: Area scoring rules and territory scoring rules also differ in the compensation given for each handicap stone since each handicap stone would count under area scoring.
Komi compensation for going first also varies, ranging from several fixed values commonly 5. All board sizes have an odd number of lines to ensure that there is a center point, possibly to make mirror go a less attractive strategy.
Generally all rules apply to all board sizes, with the exception of handicaps and compensation whose placement and values vary according to board size.
Historically in China a scoring system was used that penalized the player who had the greatest number of unconnected live groups of stones.
On the basis that every group needs two eyes to be alive, and that the two eyes could not be filled in, two points were deducted from the score for each live group at the end of the game.
This was known as the "cutting penalty" in Chinese, and is sometimes referred to as the "group tax" in English.
In general, there are three closely related issues which have to be addressed by each variation of the rules. First, how to ensure that the game comes to an end.
Players must be able to settle unsettled situations rather than going around in circles. And neither player should be able to drag the game out indefinitely either to avoid losing or to irritate the other player.
This is also affected by the scoring method used since territory scoring penalizes extended play after the boundaries of the territories have been settled.
Second, how to decide which player won the game; and whether draws jigo should be allowed. Possible terms to include in the score are: Third, how to determine whether a group of stones is alive or dead at the end of the game, and whether protective plays are necessary; e.
If the players are unable to agree, some rules provide for arbitration using virtual attempts to capture the group. Others allow play to resume until the group is captured or clearly immortal.
There are many official rulesets for playing Go. These vary in significant ways, such as the method used to count the final score, and in very small ways, such as whether the two kinds of "bent four in the corner" positions result in removal of the dead stones automatically at the end of the game or whether the position must be played out, and whether the players must start the game with a fixed number of stones or with an unbounded number.
These are rules used in Japan and, with some minor differences, in Korea. They are in wide use throughout the West, sometimes known as "territory" rules.
The scoring is based on territory and captured stones. There is no superko the triple ko leads to an undecided game. Suicide is always forbidden.
Japanese rules count vacant points in a seki as neutral, even if they are entirely surrounded by stones of a single color. The rules of the World Amateur Go Championship are based on the Japanese rules, with some differences.
This is the other major set of rules in widespread use, also known as "area" rules. At the end, one player usually Black fills in all of their captured territory, and the other White stones are removed from the board.
Prisoners do not count. So for example with a komidashi of 7. Komidashi is usually 7. Thus passing to signal that one believes that there are no more useful moves may be conceived as simply being a convenient device to accelerate the end of the game — assuming one is not mistaken.
The result will always be the same as if the game had been played out entirely. The fact that disagreements can be resolved by playing on means that Chinese-style rules can be implemented easily without the need for the rules to define what is meant by "living" and "dead" groups.
The rules of the First World Mind Sports Games , held in Beijing in October , are based on the Chinese rules, but are simpler, and represent a compromise with the Japanese and Korean rules.
Black the player who makes the first move was long known to have a big advantage, even before L. Victor Allis proved that black could force a win see below.
If not blocked or countered, the open row of three will be extended to an open row of four, which threatens to win in two ways.
White has to block open rows of three at moves 10, 14, 16 and 20, but black only has to do so at move 9. Move 20 is a blunder for white it should have been played next to black Black can now force a win against any defence by white, starting with move There are two forcing sequences for black, depending on whether white 22 is played next to black 15 or black The diagram on the right shows the first sequence.
All the moves for white are forced. Such long forcing sequences are typical in gomoku, and expert players can read out forcing sequences of 20 to 40 moves rapidly and accurately.
The diagram on the right shows the second forcing sequence. This diagram shows why white 20 was a blunder; if it had been next to black 19 at the position of move 32 in this diagram then black 31 would not be a threat and so the forcing sequence would fail.
World Championships in Gomoku have occurred 2 times in , People have been applying artificial intelligence techniques on playing gomoku for several decades.
However, neither the theoretical values of all legal positions, nor the opening rules such as Swap2 used by the professional gomoku players have been solved yet, so the topic of gomoku artificial intelligence is still a challenge for computer scientists, such as the problem on how to improve the gomoku algorithms to make them more strategic and competitive.
Nowadays, most of the state-of-the-art gomoku algorithms are based on the alpha-beta pruning framework. There exist several well-known tournaments for gomoku programs since The Computer Olympiad started with the gomoku game in , but gomoku has not been in the list since Human tournaments played in the Czech Republic, in and In the Gomoku World Championship , there was a match between the world champion program Yixin and the world champion human player Rudolf Dupszki.
Yixin won the match with a score of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Archived from the original on Note , This game is the one lately introduced into England under the misspelt name of Go Bang.
The board below shows the three types of winning arrangements as they might appear on an 8x8 Petteia board.